Commercial names: red deal or 'red' if imported from Europe (northern UK); yellow deal or `yellow' (southern UK). Timber grown in the UK is called Scots pine. Baltic, Finnish, Swedish, Polish, etc., redwood or yellow deal according to country of origin. Other names: Norway fir, Scots fir (UK); red pine (Scotland). Distribution: Europe, UK, Scandinavia and Russia. General description: The wide geographical range of this species provides varying strength, texture, densities, number and size of knots, etc. When dry, the heartwood colour is pale reddish-brown, and resinous. The annual rings clearly marked by contrasting light earlywood and darker latewood zones. The weight is an average 510 kg/m3 (32 lb/ft3); specific gravity .51. Mechanical properties: The species has low stiffness and resistance to shock loads, and medium crushing strength. UK timber has medium bending strength; European material has low bending strength. The UK material is 20% harder on the side grain and tougher, and from 15-30% more difficult to split. It has a very poor steam bending classification. Seasoning: Seasons very rapidly and well, but with a tendency to blue sap stain. It should be anti-stain dipped or kilned immediately after conversion. There is medium movement in service. Working properties: The timber works easily and well with both hand or machine tools; can be stained, painted, varnished or polished satisfactorily. Gluing can be troublesome in very resinous material. Durability: Non-durable; susceptible to insect attack. The heartwood is moderately resistant to preservative treatment, but the sapwood is permeable. Uses: The best grades are used for furniture, joinery and turnery, vehicle bodies; and generally for building construction, carcassing, railway sleepers, etc. In the round for telegraph poles, piles and pitprops. It is rotary cut for plywood manufacture, and selected.