Other names: (1) northern red oak (Canada and USA); (2) southern red oak, Spanish oak (USA); (3) swamp red oak, cherrybark oak (USA); (4) shumard red oak (USA). Distribution: Eastern Canada and USA. General description: The heartwood resembles other oaks with a biscuit to pink colour, but has a reddish tinge. Mostly straight grained and coarse textured, with a less attractive figure than white oak due to smaller rays. Southern red oak has a more rapid growth than northern red oak and is harder, heavier and coarser textured. Weight about 770 kg/m3 (48 lb/ft3); specific gravity .77. Mechanical properties: This timber has medium bending strength and stiffness with high crushing strength and is classified as a very good steam bending wood. Seasoning: Natural tendency to dry slowly, with liability to split, check or honeycomb, and needs care in both air drying and kilning. There is medium movement in service. Working properties: Varies according to the density of the wood and growth conditions. There is a moderate blunting effect on cutters which should be kept sharp. Nailing may require pre-boring and gluing properties are variable. Can be stained and polished to a good finish. Durability: The heartwood is non-durable and liable to insect attack but is moderately resistant to preservative treatment; the sapwood is permeable. Uses: Flooring, furniture, vehicle construction, interior joinery. Plywood manufacture and sliced for decorative veneers. It is unsuitable for exterior work.