Commercial names: black American walnut, Virginia walnut (UK); walnut (USA); black walnut (UK and USA). Other names: canaletto, black hickory nut, Canadian walnut, walnut tree. Distribution: Eastern USA and Ontario, Canada. General description: The heartwood is a rich dark brown to purplish-black, mostly straight grained, but with wavy or curly grain occasionally present. The texture is rather coarse. Weight averages 640 kg/m3 (40 lb/ft3); specific gravity .64. Mechanical properties: This is a tough, hard timber of medium density, with moderate bending and crushing strengths, and low stiffness. It has a good steam bending classification. Seasoning: Dries rather slowly with a tendency to honeycomb and requires care to avoid checking and degradation. There is small movement in service. Working properties: Works with hand or machine tools without difficulty with moderate blunting effect on, cutting edges. Holds nails or screws well, glues satisfactorily, and polishes to a high finish. Durability: Very durable. Sapwood liable to attack by powder post beetle. The heartwood is resistant to preservative treatment and biodegradation. Uses: In the USA it is the standard timber for rifle butts and gunstocks. It is extensively used for high-quality furniture, cabinetmaking and interior joinery, boatbuilding, musical instruments, clockcases, turnery and carving. A major timber in plywood manufacture and sliced for panelling, cabinet veneers and decorative veneers for all kinds in the form of stumpwood, crotches, burrs, burls, etc.